Fabrication and Characterization of Bolus Material Using Propylene Glycol for Radiation Therapy

Document Type: Original Paper

Authors

1 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, Indonesia

2 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo – Surabaya 60111, East Java, Indonesia;

3 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo – Surabaya 60111, East Java, Indonesia

4 Medical Physicist of Radiotherapy Department, Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya 60286, East Java, Indonesia

Abstract

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a synthesized bolus in the reduction of damage to body tissues and the protection of the organ at risk (OAR) in radiotherapy application. Several properties of the synthesized bolus, including density, transmission factor, and effective mass attenuation coefficient, were investigated.
Material and Methods: The materials used comprising of propylene glycol (PG), silicone rubber (SR), and aluminum (Al). The dimension of the synthesized bolus was measured using an acrylic case with a size of 11×11 cm² and thickness sizes of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm. Furthermore, the boluses were irradiated by linear accelerator with the photon beam energies of 6 and 10 MV, using linier accelerator (LINAC) Varian 2300ix.
Results: In this research,the density of synthesized bolus was evaluated by mass per volume equation. The results showed that the density of bolus was similar to the density of tissue/water, fat, and air. .  Furthermore the bolus with the composition of PG 24%, SR 8%, and Al 1.5% of all energies, transmission factors of 0.978 and 0.984, thickness of 1.5 cm, and effective mass attenuation coefficients of 0.0144 and 0.0107 cm²/g had the closest properties to the body tissues in terms of dosimetry characterization.
Conclusion: The results revealed that the synthesized bolus could increase the percentage surface dose, reduce skin-sparing effect, and protect OAR. The findings indicated that the synthesized bolus had a potential application in clinical therapy.

Keywords

Main Subjects


  1. Podgorsak E. Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students. Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency.2005.
  2. Khan FM. The physics of radiation therapy, 3. ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2003.
  3. Benoit J, Pruitt AF, Thrall DE. Effect of wetness level on the suitability of wet gauze as a substitute for superflab® as a bolus material for use with 6 MV photons. Veterinary radiology & ultrasound. 2009;50(5):555-9.
  4. Günhan B, Kemikler G, Koca A. Determination of surface dose and the effect of bolus to surface dose in electron beams. Medical Dosimetry. 2003;28(3):193-8.
  5. Zeidan OA, Chauhan BD, Estabrook WW, Willoughby TR, Manon RR, Meeks SL. Image‐guided bolus electron conformal therapy–a case study. Journal of applied clinical medical physics. 2011;12(1):68-75.
  6. Cunningham J, Cohen M, Dutreix A. ICRU Report 24: Determination of absorbed dose in a patient irradiated by beams of X-or gamma-rays in radiotherapy procedures. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement. Washington. 1976.
  7. Kirkpatrick JP, Demehri FR, Johnston SE, Stalnecker AM, Cooney TM, inventors; Kirkpatrick John P, Demehri Farokh R, Johnston Sara E, Stalnecker Andrew M, Cooney Tabitha M, assignee. Bolus materials for radiation therapy and methods of making and using the same. United States patent application US 11/926,829. 2008.
  8. Walker M, Cohen N, Menchaca D. Play‐doh® and water‐soaked gauze sponges as alternative bolus material for cobalt‐60 teletherapy. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound. 2005;46(2):179-81.
  9. Hsu SH, Roberson PL, Chen Y, Marsh RB, Pierce LJ, Moran JM. Assessment of skin dose for breast chest wall radiotherapy as a function of bolus material. Physics in Medicine & Biology. 2008;53(10):2593.
  10. Vyas V, Palmer L, Mudge R, Jiang R, Fleck A, Schaly B, et al. On bolus for megavoltage photon and electron radiation therapy. Medical Dosimetry. 2013;38(3):268-73.
  11. Gerbi BJ, Antolak JA, Deibel FC, Followill DS, Herman MG, Higgins PD, et al. Recommendations for clinical electron beam dosimetry: supplement to the recommendations of Task Group 25. Medical physics. 2009;36(7):3239-79.
  12. Humphries SM, Boyd K, Cornish P, Newman FD. Comparison of Super Stuff and paraffin wax bolus in radiation therapy of irregular surfaces. Medical Dosimetry. 1996;21(3):155-7.
  13. Nagata K, Lattimer JC, March JS. The electron beam attenuating properties of s uper f lab, p lay‐d oh, and wet gauze, compared to plastic water. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound. 2012 ;53(1):96-100.
  14. Bedford JL, Childs PJ, Hansen VN, Warrington AP, Mendes RL, Glees JP. Treatment of extensive scalp lesions with segmental intensity-modulated photon therapy. International Journal of Radiation Oncology* Biology* Physics. 2005;62(5):1549-58.
  15. Lambert GD, Richmond ND, Kermode RH, Porter DJ. The use of high density metal foils to increase surface dose in low-energy clinical electron beams. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 1999;53(2):161-6.
  16. Constantinou C, Harrington JC. Tissue compensators made of solid water or lead for megavoltage X-ray radiotherapy. Medical Dosimetry. 1989;14(1):41-7.
  17. Arancini WD, Brackenridge SA. Tin foil modified electron radiation of the skin of the nose. Radiographer. 2008;55(1):7-11.
  18. Lim TY, Poole RL, Pageler NM. Propylene glycol toxicity in children. The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2014;19(4):277-82.
  19. Catanzaro JM, Smith Jr JG. Propylene glycol dermatitis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 1991;24(1):90-5.
  20. Wu L, Wang X, Ning L, Han J, Wan Z, Lu M. Improvement of silicone rubber properties by addition of nano-SiO2 particles. Journal of applied biomaterials & functional materials. 2016 ;14(1):11-4.
  21. Malaescu I, Marin CN, Spunei M. Comparative Study on the Surface Dose of Some Bolus Materials. International Journal of Medical Physics, Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology. 2015;4(04):348.
  22. Young HD,Freedman RA. University Physics with Modern Physics. Pearson Education. 2015.
  23. Jaya GW, Sutanto H. Fabrication and characterization of bolus material using polydimethyl-siloxane. Materials Research Express. 2018;5(1):015307.
  24. Montaseri A, Alinaghizadeh M, Mahdavi SR. Physical properties of ethyl methacrylate as a bolus in radiotherapy. Iranian Journal of Medical Physics. 2012;9(2):127-34.
  25. Tagoe SN, Mensah SY, Fletcher JJ, Sasu E. Telecobalt Machine Beam Intensity Modulation with Aluminium Compensating Filter Using Missing Tissue Approach. Iranian Journal of Medical Physics. 2018;15(1):48-61.
  26. Adamson JD, Cooney T, Demehri F, Stalnecker A, Georgas D, Yin FF, et al. Characterization of water-clear polymeric gels for use as radiotherapy bolus. Technology in cancer research & treatment. 2017;16(6):923-9.
  27. Paliwal BR, Rommelfanger S, Das RK. Attenuation characteristics of a new compensator material: Thermo‐Shield for high energy electron and photon beams. Medical physics. 1998 ;25(4):484-7.
  28. Papanikolaou N, Battista J, Boyer A, Kappas C, Klein E, Mackie T, et al. Tissue inhomogeneity corrections for megavoltage photon beams. AAPM Report No. 85, Task Group No 65 of the Radiation Therapy Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. 2004.
  29. White DR, Booz J, Griffith RV, Spokas JJ, Wilson IJ. 4. The Composition of Body Tissues. Reports of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. 1989;1:20-3.
  30. Hendee WR, Ritenour ER. Medical Imaging Physics. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.2002.
  31. Mayer MN, Yoshikawa H, Moriarity LE, Sidhu N. Use of a petroleum‐based bolus for photon radiation therapy of distal extremities in dogs. Veterinary radiology & ultrasound. 2009 ;50(2):235-8.
  32. Dubois D, Bice W, Bradford B, Schneid T, Engelmeier R. Moldable tissue equivalent bolus for high‐energy photon and electron therapy. Medical physics. 1996;23(9):1547-9.
  33. Supratman AS, Sutanto H, Hidayanto E, Jaya GW, Astuti SY, Budiono T, et al. Characteristic of natural rubber as bolus material for radiotherapy. Materials Research Express. 2018 ;5(9):095302.