Characterization of Wedge Factors and Dose Distributions in Radiotherapy with Symmetric and Asymmetric Physical Wedged Beams of 6 MV Photon Beam

Document Type: Original Paper

Authors

1 Medical Physicist, Department of Medical Physics and Department of Clinical Oncology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Golestan Blvd., Ahvaz 61357-33118, Iran

2 Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

3 Department of Clinical Oncology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Golestan Blvd., Ahvaz 61357-33118, Iran

4 Medical Physicist, Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Golestan Blvd., Ahvaz 61357-33118, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Physical wedge by modify photon beam shape and intensity has been utilized in radiotherapy to obtain uniformly dose distribution in tumor site with reduced hot spots. Calculation of dosimetric parameters for both symmetric and asymmetric wedged fields is proved necessary during linear accelerator (Linac) commissioning. The present study aimed to achieve output factors and dose profiles for symmetric and asymmetric wedged fields of 6 MV beams.
Material and Methods: The Siemens PRIMUS Linac head for 6 MV beam was simulated by BEAMnrc and all dose calculations were performed by DOSXYZnrc code. Percentage depth dose (PDD) and profiles for open and wedged (15° and 45°) fields were compared with corresponding measurements. Wedge factors for 10 x 10 cm2 field were obtained as a function of lateral distance as well for half beam wedged fields.
Results: Based on the results of the present study, the calculated doses were in agreement with the measured data. The output factors on the central axis of symmetric wedged beams decreased to 0.693 and 0.307 for 15˚, and 45˚ wedges. The total photon fluence of 15˚ and 45˚ physical wedged fields reduced to 71.6% and 27.7% of open field, respectively.
Conclusion: The output factor for asymmetric wedged fields was found to be lower than corresponding symmetric open and wedged fields, particularly at field edges. Lack of scattering photons near the half beam edges resulted in dose fall-off in these regions possible to be overestimated by treatment planning system and consequently caused cold spots at target volume.

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