Assessment of Maximum Entrance Skin Dose of Patients Undergoing Cardiac Interventional Procedures and Its Correlation with Other Dosimetric Parameters

Document Type: Original Paper


1 Medical Physics Department, Medical Physics Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Medical Physics Department, Faculty of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran

3 Radiology and Radiotherapy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran

4 Medical Physics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Introduction: In recent years, the number of complex coronary angiography (CA) is increasing rapidly. These procedures have a significant contribution to medical exposure to the general population. Exposure of patients to high doses of x-rays could cause deterministic effects on the skin. Therefore, the assessment of radiation doses of patients is of great importance. This study aimed to assess maximum entrance skin dose (MESD) of patients who underwent interventional cardiology procedures. Moreover, it was attempted to determine the correlation between MESD and other relevant dosimetric parameters.
Material and Methods: The MESDs of 32 patients who underwent CA procedures were measured by an array of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). In this study, a Perspex tray consisting of 5 rows and 6 columns was used to hold the TLDs. Its long axis was perpendicular to the long axis of the table, and the top edges of the tray were approximately equal to the patient’s shoulders.
Results: The results revealed a linear relationship between dose area product (DAP) values and MESDs (R2=0.89; P=0.00). In addition, there was a significant association between MESD and fluoroscopy time (R2=0.89). Moreover, a weak correlation was observed between MESD and the number of frames per second (R2=0.23).
Conclusion: According to the results, the recorded DAP values and fluoroscopy time can be used to estimate the MESDs of patients undergoing coronary fluoroscopy procedures.


Main Subjects

Volume 17, Issue 4
July and August 2020
Pages 235-246
  • Receive Date: 20 August 2018
  • Revise Date: 03 September 2019
  • Accept Date: 16 September 2019