Electron Beam Dosimetry in Heterogeneous Phantoms Using a MAGIC Normoxic Polymer Gel

Document Type: Original Paper

Authors

1 M.Sc.in Medical Physics, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Radiotherapy and Oncology Dept, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Medical Physics Dept., Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Radiotherapy and Oncology Dept., Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Nowadays radiosensitive polymer gels are used as a reliable dosimetry tool for verification of 3D dose distributions. Special characteristics of these dosimeters have made them useful for verification of complex dose distributions in clinical situations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the capability of a normoxic polymer gel to determine electron dose distributions in different slab phantoms in presence of small heterogeneities.
Materials and Methods: Different cylindrical phantoms consisting gel were used under slab phantoms during each irradiation. MR images of irradiated gel phantoms were obtained to determine their R2 relaxation maps. 1D and 2D lateral dose profiles were acquired at depths of 1 cm for an 8 MeV beam and 1 and 4 cm for the 15 MeV energy, and then compared with the lateral dose profiles measured using a diode detector. In addition, 3D dose distributions around these heterogeneities for the same energies and depths were measured using a gel dosimeter.
Results: Dose resolution for MR gel images at the range of 0-10 Gy was less than 1.55 Gy. Mean dose difference and distance to agreement (DTA) for dose profiles were 2.6% and 2.2 mm, respectively. The results of the MAGIC-type polymer gel for bone heterogeneity at 8 MeV showed a reduction in dose of approximately 50%, and 30% and 10% at depths 1 and 4 cm at 15 MeV. However, for air heterogeneity increases in dose of approximately 50% at depth 1 cm under the heterogeneity at 8 MeV and 20% and 45% respectively at 15 MeV were observed.
Discussion and Conclusion: Generally, electron beam distributions are significantly altered in the presence of tissue inhomogeneities such as bone and air cavities, this being related to mass stopping and mass scattering powers of heterogeneous materials. At the same time, hot and cold scatter lobes under heterogeneity regions due to scatter edge effects were also seen. However, these effects (increased dose, reduced dose, hot and cold spots) at deeper depths, are compensated with the contributions of scattered electrons. Our study showed that normoxic polymer gels are reliable detectors for determination of electron dose distributions due to their characteristics such as tissue equivalence, energy independence, and 2D and 3D dose visualization capabilities.

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