Numerical Study for Optimizing Parameters of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Induced Thermal Field during Liver Tumor Ablation: HIFU Simulator

Document Type: Original Paper

Authors

1 Department ofMedical Physics & Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Department of Medical Physics, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran

3 Department of Medical Physics & Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

Abstract

Introduction
High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is considered a noninvasive and effective technique for tumor ablation. Frequency and acoustic power are the most effective parameters for temperature distribution and the extent of tissue damage. The aim of this study was to optimize the operating transducer parameters such as frequency and input power in order to acquire suitable temperature and thermal dose distribution in the course of a numerical assessment.
Materials and Methods
To model the sound propagation, the Khokhlov-Zabolotskava-Kuznetsov (KZK) nonlinear wave equation was used and simulation was carried out using MATLAB HIFU toolbox. Bioheat equation was applied to calculate the transient temperature in the liver tissue. Frequency ranges of 2, 3, 4, and 5 MHz and power levels of 50 and 100 W were applied using an extracorporeal transducer.
Results
Using a frequency of 2 MHz, the maximum temperatures reached 53°C and 90°C in the focal point for power levels of 50 W and 100 W, respectively. With the same powers and using a frequency of 3 MHz, the temperature reached to 71°C and 170°C, respectively. In addition, for these power levels at the frequency of 4 MHz, the temperature reached to 72°C and 145°C, respectively. However, at the 5 MHz frequency, the temperature in the focal spot was either 57°C or 79°C.
Conclusion
Use of frequency of 2 MHz and power of 100 W led to higher thermal dose distribution, and subsequently, reduction of the treatment duration and complications at the same exposure time in ablation of large tumors.

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