Determination of Dose-Equivalent Response of A Typical Diamond Microdosimeter in Space Radiation Fields

Document Type: Original Paper


1 Radiation Applications Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Tehran, Iran

2 Radiation Applications Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, P.O.Box: 11365-3486, Tehran, Iran

3 Laser and Optics Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, P.O.Box: 11365-8486, Tehran, Iran

4 Energy Engineering and Physics Faculty, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O.Box: 15875-4413, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: Microdosimeters are helpful for dose equivalent measurement in unknown radiation fields. The favorable physical and mechanical properties of the detector-grade chemical vapor deposition diamond materials have made the diamond microdosimeters suitable candidate for radioprotection applications in space. The purpose of this work is the investigation of the dose equivalent response of a typical diamond microdosimeter with laser-induced graphitized electrodes for use in space radiation fields.
Materials and Methods: The Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit was applied to simulate the particle transport within the microdosimeter, and to determine the mean chord length and the dose equivalent response of the microdosimeter, based on the lineal energy dependent quality factor. 
 Results: The linear stopping power of the protons and alpha particles with energies higher than 5 MeV and 10 MeV respectively can be estimated within20% of deviation using the microdosimeter response. The fluence to dose equivalent conversion coefficients calculated affirms that there is an adequate agreement between the calculated coefficients and other research group results.
Conclusion: The reasonable agreement between the dose equivalents calculated in this study and the results reported by other researchers confirmed that this type of microdosimeter could be a promising candidate suitable for the measurement of the dose equivalent in space radiation fields.


Main Subjects



  1. Verona C, Magrin G, Solevi P, Grilj V, Jakšić M, Mayer R, et al. Spectroscopic properties and radiation damage investigation of a diamond based Schottky diode for ion-beam therapy microdosimetry. Journal of Applied Physics. 2015;118(18):184503.
  2. The quality factor in radiation protection: report of a joint task group of the ICRP and the ICRU to the ICRP and the ICRU. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements; 1986.  Contract No.: 40.
  3. Rossi BHH, Zaider M. Microdosimetry and its Applications: Springer; 1996.
  4. Rossi HH, Rosenzweig W. A device for the measurement of dose as a function of specific ionization. Radiology. 1955;64(3):404-11.
  5. Davis JA, Guatelli S, Petasecca M, Lerch ML, Reinhard MI, Zaider M, et al. Tissue equivalence study of a novel diamond-based microdosimeter for galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2014;61(4):1544-51.
  6. Bradley PD. The development of a novel silicon microdosimeter for high LET radiation therapy: University of Wollongong; 2000.
  7. Dicello J, Amols H, Zaider M, Tripard G. A comparison of microdosimetric measurements with spherical proportional counters and solid-state detectors. Radiation Research. 1980;82(3):441-53.
  8. Buttar C, Conway J, Meyfarth R, Scarsbrook G, Sellin P, Whitehead A. CVD diamond detectors as dosimeters for radiotherapy. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 1997;392(1-3):281-4.
  9. De Angelis C, Bucciolini M, Casati M, Løvik I, Bruzzi M, Lagomarsino S, et al. Improvements in CVD diamond properties for radiotherapy dosimetry. Radiation protection dosimetry. 2006;120(1-4):38-42.
  10. Davis JA, Ganesan K, Alves AD, Guatelli S, Petasecca M, Livingstone J, et al. Characterization of a novel diamond-based microdosimeter prototype for radioprotection applications in space environments. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2012;59(6):3110-6.
  11. Rollet S, Angelone M, Magrin G, Marinelli M, Milani E, Pillon M, et al. A novel microdosimeter based upon artificial single crystal diamond. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2012;59(5):2409-15.
  12. Angelone M, Magrin G, Pillon M, Prestopino G, Rollet S, Milani E, et al. Simulation and test of a new MicroDosimeter based upon Single Crystal Diamond.  Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 2011 IEEE: IEEE; 2011. p. 1738-41.
  13. Davis JA. Diamond microdosimetry for radioprotection applications in space: University of Wollongong; 2015.
  14. Davis JA, Ganesan K, Prokopovich DA, Petasecca M, Lerch ML, Jamieson DN, et al. A 3D lateral electrode structure for diamond based microdosimetry. Applied Physics Letters. 2017;110(1):013503.
  15. Solevi P, Magrin G, Moro D, Mayer R. Monte Carlo study of microdosimetric diamond detectors. Physics in medicine and biology. 2015;60(18):7069.
  16. Burgemeister EA, inventor; U.S. Patent No. 4,511,783, assignee. Method for making electrical contacts to diamond by means of a laser, and diamond provided with contacts according to this optical method patent 4511783. 1985.
  17. Geis MW, Rothschild M, Ehrlich DJ, inventors; U.S. Patent No. 5,002,899, assignee. Electrical contacts on diamond patent 5002899. 1991.
  18. E. Alemanno AC, M. Catalano, G. Chiodini, G. Fiore, M. Martino, R. Perrino, C. Pinto, S. Spagnolo. Diamond detector with laser made graphitic electrodes. Italy: Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare; 2011.
  19. De Feudis M, Caricato A, Martino M, Alemanno E, Ossi P, Maruccio G, et al. Realization and characterization of graphitic contacts on diamond by means of laser. 4th Workshop-Plasmi, Sorgenti, Biofisica ed Applicazioni; 2015: 63-8.
  20. De Feudis M, Caricato A, Taurino A, Ossi P, Castiglioni C, Brambilla L, et al. Diamond graphitization by laser-writing for all-carbon detector applications. Diamond and Related Materials. 2017;75:25-33.
  21. Berger MJ, Coursey J, Zucker M, Chang J. Stopping-power and range tables for electrons, protons, and helium ions: NIST Physics Laboratory; 1998.
  22. Sato T, Endo A, Zankl M, Petoussi-Henss N, Yasuda H, Niita K. Fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for aircrew dosimetry based on the new ICRP Recommendations. Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology. 2011;1:134-7.
  23. Stefan Roesler GRS. A FLUKA user-routine converting fluence into effective dose and ambient dose equivalent. Switzerland: EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH, CERN; 2006.
  24. Agostinelli S, Allison J, Amako Ka, Apostolakis J, Araujo H, Arce P, et al. GEANT4—a simulation toolkit. Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 2003;506(3):250-303.
  25. Allison J, Amako K, Apostolakis Jea, Araujo H, Dubois PA, Asai M, et al. Geant4 developments and applications. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2006;53(1):270-8.
  26. Guatelli S, Reinhard MI, Mascialino B, Prokopovich DA, Dzurak AS, Zaider M, et al. Tissue equivalence correction in silicon microdosimetry for protons characteristic of the LEO space environment. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2008;55(6):3407-13.
  27. Anjomani Z, Hanu A, Prestwich W, Byun S. Monte Carlo design study for thick gas electron multiplier-based multi-element microdosimetric detector. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 2014;757:67-74.
  28. Jarlskog CZ, Paganetti H. Physics settings for using the Geant4 toolkit in proton therapy. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2008;55(3):1018-25.
  29. Chauvie S, Guatelli S, Ivanchenko V, Longo F, Mantero A, Mascialino B, et al. Geant4 low energy electromagnetic physics.  Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 2004 IEEE: IEEE; 2004: 1881-5.
  30. Santin G. Normalisation modelling sources.  Geant4Tutorial; Paris, France: 2007.
  31. Dietze G, Bartlett D, Cool D, Cucinotta F, Jia X, McAulay I, et al. ICRP Publication 123: Assessment of Radiation Exposure of Astronauts in Space. ICRP Publication 123. 2013;42(4):1-339.
  32. Spurný F. Space and Flights Radiation Protection. Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic: Nuclear Physics Institute; 2008.
  33. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 60. 1991;21(1-3).
  34. Prokopovich DA. Silicon on insulator microdosimetry for radiation protection in mixed radiation fields for aviation and space dosimetry: University of Wollongong; 2010.
  35. Kellerer AM, Hahn K. Considerations on a revision of the quality factor. Radiation research. 1988;114(3):480-8.
  36. Agency IAE. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards: International Atomic Energy Agency; 2014.
  37. Lin Z-W. Can the Equivalent Sphere Model Approximate Organ Doses in Space?  18th Annual NASA Space Radiation Investigator's Workshop; Rohnert Park, CA; United States2007.
  38. Clowdsley MS, Wilson JW, Kim M-H, Anderson BM, Nealy JE. Radiation protection quantities for near Earth environments. 2004.
  39. Borggräfe A, Quatmann M, Nölke D. Radiation protective structures on the base of a case study for a manned Mars mission. Acta Astronautica. 2009;65(9):1292-305.
  40. Hu S, Kim M-HY, McClellan GE, Cucinotta FA. Modeling the acute health effects of astronauts from exposure to large solar particle events. Health physics. 2009;96(4):465-76.