Effect of Pulse-Modulated GSM-900 MHz Electromagnetic Field on the Electrochemotherapy Efficacy of 4T-1 Cells

Document Type : Original Paper


1 Department of Medical physics, Faculty of Medical science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Medical Physics, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

3 PhD, Professor of Immunonology. , Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.


Introduction: Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a cancer treatment modality to permeabilize cell membrane facilitating the non-permeant molecules to gain access to the cytosol of cells. Nevertheless, environmental electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may disturb the efficiency of ECT. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of EMFs 900 MHz pulse-modulated by 217 Hz extremely low-frequency fields on the efficiency of ECT
Materials and Methods: The 4T-1 cells were exposed to 900 MHz radiofrequency (RF) modulated by 217 Hz fields at the power densities of 17, 162, and 349 µW/cm2 (related to antenna input powers of 3, 4, and 5 W at a distance of 15 cm) by a GSM900 MHz simulator. After exposure, the cells were divided into several groups, receiving no treatment, chemotherapy, electric pulse, and ECT. The cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay after 24 h.
Results: The results demonstrated that 900 MHz RF pulse-modulated by 217 Hz EMF at 349 µW/cm2 increased the viability of the cells treated with EPs with the amplitude of 70 V/cm and frequency of 5 kHz (16%), ECT with 70 V/cm at 5 kHz (20%), and ECT with 60 V/cm at 5 kHz (16%), compared to their counterpart treatment group with no exposure. However, the fields had no significant effect on the efficacy of chemotherapy.
Conclusion: As the findings of the current study indicated, environmental pulsed-modulated RF fields exerted an adverse influence on some antitumor therapies. Therefore, such effects should be taken into consideration in determining the optimal protocols of treatment. 


Main Subjects


    1. Sersa G, Cemazar M, Snoj M. Electrochemotherapy of tumours. Current Oncology. 2009;16(2):34-5.
    2. Cadossi R, Ronchetti M, Cadossi M. Locally enhanced chemotherapy by electroporation: clinical experiences and perspective of use of electrochemotherapy. Future Oncology. 2014;10(5):877-90.
    3. Bhalerao G, Zope R, Khaire G, Tambe B. Human brain with EMR of cell phone. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research. 2013;3(1):307-10.
    4. Deepinder F, Makker K, Agarwal A. Cell phones and male infertility: dissecting the relationship. Reproductive biomedicine online. 2007;15(3):266-70.
    5. Zamanian A, Hardiman C. Electromagnetic radiation and human health: A review of sources and effects. High Frequency Electronics. 2005;4(3):16-26.
    6. Karger CP. Mobile phones and health: A literature overview. Zeitschrift für Medizinische Physik. 2005;15(2):73-85.
    7. Kim K-H, Kabir E, Jahan SA. The use of cell phone and insight into its potential human health impacts. Environmental monitoring and assessment. 2016;188(4):221.
    8. Sannino A, Sarti M, Reddy SB, Prihoda TJ, Scarfì MR. Induction of adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to radiofrequency radiation. Radiation research. 2009;171(6):735-42.
    9. Sannino A, Zeni O, Romeo S, Massa R, Gialanella G, Grossi G, Manti L, Scarfì MR. Adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields: resistance to ionizing radiation-induced damage. Journal of radiation research. 2013;55(2):210-7.
    10. Jin Z, Zong C, Jiang B, Zhou Z, Tong J, Cao Y. The Effect of Combined Exposure of 900 MHz Radiofrequency Fields and Doxorubicin in HL-60 Cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;;7(9):e46102.
    11. M Mansourian, S.M Firoozabadi, Hassan Zuhair Sarraf. Investigation of adaptive response induced by mobile phone radiations on electrochemotherapy efficacy. The 3rd Iranian Conference on Bioelectromagnetics. 2016;Iran,Tehran:22-3.
    12. Cao Y, Xu Q, Jin Z-D, Zhang J, Lu M-X, Nie J-H, et al. Effects of 900-MHz microwave radiation on γ-ray-induced damage to mouse hematopoietic system. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 2010;73(7):507-13.
    13. Jadidi M, Firouzabadi S, Rashidipour A, Bolouri B, Sajadi A. Does whole body exposure to GSM-950 MHz electromagnetic fields affect acquisition and consolidation of spatial information in rats?. International Journal of Radiation Research. 2009; 7(1):57.
    14. Jadidi M, Firoozabadi SMP, Rashidy-Pour A, Bolouri B, Fathollahi Y. Low-power density of 950 MHz radiation does not affect long-term potentiation in rat dentate gyrus. International Journal of Radiation Research. 2007;5(3):119-24.
    15. Panagopoulos DJ, Johansson O, Carlo GL. Evaluation of Specific Absorption Rate as a Dosimetric Quantity for Electromagnetic Fields Bioeffects. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e62663.
    16. Olivieri G, Bodycote J, Wolff S. Adaptive response of human lymphocytes to low concentrations of radioactive thymidine. Science. 1984;223:594-8.
    17. Shankayi Z, Firoozabadi SM, Zuhair Sarraf H. Study of effect of voltage , frequency and time in electrochemotherapy with Low Voltage High Frequency of MCF7 cells. The 2rd Iranian Conference on Bioelectromagnetics. Iran,Ghazvin. 2013 ; 37-38.
    18. Ma H, Pan Z, Gao M, Luo L. Efficacy in microbial sterilization of pulsed magnetic field treatment. International Journal of Food Engineering. 2008;4(4):1-14.
    19. Gafter U, Malachi T, Ori Y, Breitbart H. The role of calcium in human lymphocyte DNA repair ability. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 1997;130(1):33-41.
    20. Blackman C, Benane S, Elder J, House D, Lampe J, Faulk J. Induction of calcium‐ion efflux from brain tissue by radiofrequency radiation: Effect of sample number and modulation frequency on the power‐density window. Bioelectromagnetics. 1980;1(1):35-43.
    21. Chow K-C, Tung WL. Magnetic field exposure enhances DNA repair through the induction of DnaK/J synthesis. FEBS Letters. 2000;478(1):133-6.
    22. Vijayalaxmi, Cao Y, Scarfi MR. Adaptive response in mammalian cells exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields: A review and gaps in knowledge. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research. 2014;760:36-45.
    23. Matsuki N, Ishikawa T, Imai Y, Yamaguchi T. Low voltage pulses can induce apoptosis. Cancer letters. 2008;269(1):93-100.
    24. Mansourian M, Firoozabadi SMP, Shankayi Z, Hassan Z. Magnetic fields with frequency of 217 Hz can reduce cell apoptosis caused by electrochemotherapy. Electromagnetic biology and medicine. 2013;32(1):70-8.
    25. Fanelli C, Coppola S, Barone R, Colussi C, Gualandi G, Volpe P, et al. Magnetic fields increase cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis via modulation of Ca2+ influx. The FASEB Journal. 1999;13(1):95-102.
    26. Bułdak RJ, Polaniak R, Bułdak Ł, Żwirska‐Korczala K, Skonieczna M, Monsiol A, et al. Short‐term exposure to 50 Hz ELF‐EMF alters the cisplatin‐induced oxidative response in AT478 murine squamous cell carcinoma cells. Bioelectromagnetics. 2012;33(8):641-51.
    27. Basile A, Zeppa R, Pasquino N, Arra C, Ammirante M, Festa M, et al. Exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic field raises the levels of the anti‐apoptotic protein BAG3 in melanoma cells. Journal of cellular physiology. 2011;226(11):2901-7.