Estimation of Radon Exhalation Rate, Radium Activity and Uranium Concentration in Biscuit Samples in Iraq

Document Type : Original Paper


1 Physics Dept., College of Science, Mosul University, Mosul

2 Department of Physics, collage of science, Kerbala University

3 Department of Physics, College of Science, Kerbala University


Introduction: Radioisotopes are naturally the main sources of human exposure to external and internal radiation. Biscuit is a type of food that is widely distributed in all markets, especially in the markets of Iraq. Therefore, the current study aimed to measure the radiation level of some nuclei in biscuit samples and determine the radiation risks that may be caused by this snack.
Material and Methods: This study aimed to evaluate the concentration of alpha radiation activity in 22 different samples of biscuits collected from the markets in Iraq. The analysis of radium activity and radon exhalation rate was performed by employing alpha-sensitive CR-39 plastic track detectors.
Results: The effective radium values ranged within 23.312-200.44 Bq/kg with a mean value of 58.927 Bq/kg. Radon emission values for the mass unit was within the range of 0.172-1.515 𝐵𝑞/kg.h, with a mean of 0.445 Bq /kg.h, while radon emission values for the surface unit were 3.988-34.3 𝐵𝑞 /𝑚2.h, with a mean of 10.081  Bq /m2.h. The uranium concentrations found in these samples were within the range of 0.02-0.172 ppm with a mean value of 0.05 ppm. Moreover, there was a direct relationship between radium activity and radon exhalation rate. Additionally, the findings showed that uranium correlated positively with radium activity.   
Conclusion: The results of the present study were within internationally permissible limits. Therefore there is no risk of consumption of biscuits on human health. However, we must use modern techniques and techniques to reduce radiation risk.


Main Subjects

  1. References


    1. Durrani SA. Radon measurements by etched track detectors: applications in radiation protection, earth sciences and the environment. World Scientific; 1997.
    2. Abumurad KM, Atallah M, Kullab MK, Ismail A. Determination of radon soil concentration levels in the Governorate of Irbid, Jordan. Radiation measurements. 1997 Jan 1;28(1-6):585-8.
    3. Abumurad KM, Al-Tamimi M. Emanation power of radon and its concentration in soil and rocks. Radiation measurements. 2001 Jun 1;34(1-6):423-6.
    4. Gruber V, Maringer FJ, Landstetter C. Radon and other natural radionuclides in drinking water in Austria: measurement and assessment. Applied radiation and isotopes. 2009 May 1;67(5):913-7.
    5. United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Report to the General Assembly. United Nations, New York. 2000.
    6. Al-Kharouf SJ, Al-Hamarneh IF, Dababneh M. Natural radioactivity, dose assessment and uranium uptake by agricultural crops at Khan Al-Zabeeb, Jordan. Journal of environmental radioactivity. 2008 Jul 1;99(7):1192-9.
    7. Tome FV, Rodríguez MB, Lozano JC. Soil-to-plant transfer factors for natural radionuclides and stable elements in a Mediterranean area. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 2003 Jan 1;65(2):161-75.
    8. Samavat H, Seaward MR, Aghamiri SM, Reza-Nejad F. Radionuclide concentrations in the diet of residents in a high level natural radiation area in Iran. Radiation and environmental biophysics. 2006 Nov 1;45(4):301-6.
    9. BEIR IV. Report of the Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. The health effects of exposure to indoor radon. National Research Council. National Academy of Science. Washington, DC. 1999.
    10. Young DA. Etching of radiation damage in lithium fluoride. Nature. 1958 Aug 19;182.
    11. Cothern CR, Lappenbusch  WL. Occurrence of Uranium in Drinking Water: US. Health Physics.1983; 45, 89- 99. Doi :10.1097/00004032-198307000-00009.
    12. Tanner AB. Radon migration in the ground: a supplementary review. Natural radiation environment III. 1980 Dec 1;1:5-6.
    13. Durrani SA, Bull RK. Solid state nuclear track detection: principles, methods and applications. Elsevier; 2013 Oct 22.
    14. Gamboa E, Moreno A, Golzari JI, Costillo F,. Nuclear Track and Measurement. 1984;1:443-5.
    15. Ahmad N, Jaafar MS, Khan SA, Nasir T, Ahmad S, Rahim M. Measurement of radon exhalation rate, radium activity and annual effective dose from bricks and cement samples collected from Dera Ismail Khan. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 2014 Feb 1;11(2):240.
    16. Hamza VZ, Mohankumar MN. Cytogenetic damage in human blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to radon. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. 2009 Feb 10;661(1):1-9.
    17. Hashim AK, Mohammed EJ. Natural Radioactivity Due To Radon In Dwellings Of Karbala City, IRAQ. Int. J. Adv. Res. 2016; 4(8): 1164-71.
    18. Khan MS, Srivastava DS, Azam A. Study of radium content and radon exhalation rates in soil samples of northern India. Environmental Earth Sciences. 2012 Nov 1;67(5):1363-71.
    19. Khan MS, Naqvi AH, Azam A, Srivastava DS. Radium and radon exhalation studies of soil. International Journal of Radiation Research. 2011 Mar 1;8(4):207.
    20. Azam A, Naqvi AH, Srivastava DS. Radium concentration and radon exhalation measurements using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. Nuclear Geophysics. 1995;6(9):653-7.
    21. Somogyi G, Hafez AF, Hunyadi I, Toth-Szilagyi M. Measurement of exhalation and diffusion parameters of radon in solids by plastic track detectors. International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation. Part D. Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements. 1986 Jan 1;12(1-6):701-4.
    22. Alsaedi AK, Almayahi BA, Alasadi AH. Cement 222Rn and 226Ra concentration measurements in selected samples from different companies. Asian Journal of Natural & Applied Sciences (AJSC). 2013;2(4):95-100.
    23. Mahur AK, Khan MS, Naqvi AH, Prasad R, Azam A. Measurement of effective radium content of sand samples collected from Chhatrapur beach, Orissa, India using track etch technique. Radiation Measurements. 2008 Aug 1;43:S520-2.
    24. Mahur AK, Kumar R, Sengupta D, Prasad R. Estimation of radon exhalation rate, natural radioactivity and radiation doses in fly ash samples from Durgapur thermal power plant, West Bengal, India. Journal of environmental radioactivity. 2008 Aug 1;99(8):1289-93.
    25. Sonkawade RG, Kant K, Muralithar S, Kumar R, Ramola RC. Natural radioactivity in common building construction and radiation shielding materials. Atmospheric Environment. 2008 Mar 1;42(9):2254-9.
    26. Amrani D, Cherouati DE. Radon exhalation rate in building materials using plastic track detectors. Journal of radioanalytical and nuclear chemistry. 1999 Nov 1;242(2):269-71.
    27. Al-saadi AJ, KHashim AS, Hussein FM. Measurement of Radon and Uranium Concentrations in the Dates and Their Seeds of Different Regions in Karbala Governorate. Journal of University of Babylon. 2013;21(6):2134-47.
    28. Yousuf RM, Abullah KO. Measurement of uranium and radon Concentrations in resources of water from Sulaimany Governorate-Kurdistan region-iraq. ARPN Journal Of Science And Technology. 2013;3(6).
    29. Hashim AK, Najam LA, Al-Alawy R. Effective Radium Content and Radon Flux Determination in Cereals and Legumes Iraqian Products. Atti della“Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi” Anno LXX. 2015 ; 6: 609-19.
      1. Hashim AK, Najam LA. Alpha radioactivity in various brands of Rice in Iraqi market. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Protection. 2015;2(5):70-5.
      2. Hashim AK, Najam LA. Radium and Uranium Concentrations Measurements in Vegetables Samples of Iraq. Detection. 2015 Aug 21;3(04):21.
      3. Pourimani R, Mortazavi Shahroudi SM. Radiological Assessment of the Artificial and Natural Radionuclide Concentrations of Wheat and Barley Samples in Karbala, Iraq. Iranian Journal of Medical Physics. 2018 Apr 1;15(2):126-31.
      4. Pourimani R, Rahimi S.  Radiological Assessment of the Artificial and Natural Radionuclide Concentrations of Some Species of Wild Fungi and Nourished Mushrooms. Iranian Journal of Medical Physics. 2016 Dec 1;13(4):269-75.