Optimization of Natural Rhenium Irradiation Time to Produce Compositional Radiopharmaceutical

Document Type : Original Paper


1 Department of Physics, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran.

2 Material and Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.


Introduction: Previously, 186Re and 188Re radioisotopes have been produced through appropriate activities, and each of them has been used for therapeutic applications. The 186Re and 188Re have unique properties, which make them proper for the treatment of  tumors in different sizes. The long-range 188Re, is suitable for the annihilation of large tumors. In contrast, the short-range 186Re is desirable for the destruction of small tumors. The aim of this study was to find the suitable time for rhenium irradiation in order to simultaneously produce radionuclides with both appropriate and identical activities.
Material and Methods: To reach 186Re and 188Re with appropriate activities to produce compositional radiopharmaceutical, we have investigated natural rhenium irradiation at different times to produce 186Re and 188Re simultaneously with appropriate and identical activities to reach compositional radiopharmaceutical. In this regard, the simultaneous production of 186Re and 188Re with appropriate activities were investigated analytically through natural rhenium irradiation in a reactor. The irradiation was assessed at different time intervals in order to reach appropriate activities for compositional radiopharmaceuticals.
Results: On the basis of the findings, 186Re and 188Re could be produced simultaneously with suitable and almost equal activities with irradiating natural rhenium for 4 days and considering 1 day for cooling. Moreover, the obtained results of this study revealed that the generated impurities were negligible.
Conclusion: The optimization of natural rhenium irradiation time can help the simultaneous production of 186Re and 188Re with appropriate activities for compositional radiopharmaceuticals. 


Main Subjects


    1. Gholamrezanezhad, A., 12 Chapters on Nuclear Medicine. 2011.
    2. Gholipour, N., A. Vakili, E. Radfar, A.R. Jalilian, A. Bahrami-Samani, S. Shirvani-Arani, et al., Optimization of 90 Y-antiCD20 preparation for radioimmunotherapy. Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, 2013; 9(2): p. 199.
    3. Yousefnia, H., R. Enayati, M. Hosntalab, S. Zolghadri, and A. Bahrami-Samani, Samarium-153-(4-[((bis (phosphonomethyl)) carbamoyl) methyl]-7, 10-bis (carboxymethyl)-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid: A novel agent for bone pain palliation therapy. Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, 2016; 12(3): p. 1117.
    4. Gielen, M. and E.R. Tiekink, Metallotherapeutic drugs and metal-based diagnostic agents: the use of metals in medicine. 2005: John Wiley & Sons.
    5. http://nucleardata.nuclear.lu.se/toi/.
    6. Ranjbar, H., A. Bahrami-Samani, D. Beiki, and M. Ghannadi-Maragheh, Development of 153Sm/177Lu-EDTMP as a possible therapeutic complex. Iranian Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 2017; 25(1): p. 11-16.
    7. Ranjbar, H., A. Bahrami-Samani, M.R. Yazdani, and M. Ghannadi-Maragheh, Determination of human absorbed dose of cocktail of 153 Sm/177 Lu-EDTMP, based on biodistribution data in rats. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 2016; 307(2): p. 1439-1444.
    8. https://www-nds.iaea.org/exfor/endf.htm., I.A.E.A.E.N.D.F.E.A.f.
    9. Epping, B., G. Leinweber, D. Barry, M. Rapp, R. Block, T. Donovan, et al., Rhenium resonance parameters from neutron capture and transmission measurements in the energy range 0.01 eV to 1 keV. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 2017; 99: p. 59-72.
    10. Banerjee, S., T. Das, G. Samuel, H. Sarma, M. Venkatesh, and M. Pillai, A novel [186/188Re]-labelled porphyrin for targeted radiotherapy. Nuclear medicine communications, 2001; 22(10): p. 1101-1107.
    11. Das, T., S. Banerjee, G. Samuel, K. Kothari, P. Unni, H. Sarma, et al., [186/188Re] rhenium-ethylene dicysteine (Re-Ec): preparation and evaluation for possible use in endovascular brachytherapy. Nuclear medicine and biology, 2000; 27(2): p. 189-197.
    12. Häfeli, U.O., S. Casillas, D.W. Dietz, G.J. Pauer, L.A. Rybicki, S.D. Conzone, et al., Hepatic tumor radioembolization in a rat model using radioactive rhenium (186Re/188Re) glass microspheres. International Journal of Radiation Oncology• Biology• Physics, 1999; 44(1): p. 189-199.
    13. Kothari, K., M. Pillai, P. Unni, A. Mathakar, H. Shimpi, O. Noronha, et al., Preparation of 186Re complexes of dimercaptosuccinic acid and hydroxy ethylidine diphosphonate. Modern Trends in Radiopharmaceuticals for Diagnosis and Therapy, 1998: p. 539-555.
    14. Kothari, K., M. Pillai, P. Unni, H. Shimpi, O. Noronha, and A. Samuel, Preparation, stability studies and pharmacological behavior of [186Re] Re–HEDP. Applied radiation and isotopes, 1999; 51(1): p. 51-58.
    15. Kothari, K., D. Satpati, A. Mukherjee, H. Sarma, M. Venkatesh, and M. Pillai, Kidney uptake of 186/188Re (V)‐DMSA is significantly reduced when the reducing agent is changed from stannous ion to metabisulfite. Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals: The Official Journal of the International Isotope Society, 2002; 45(8): p. 675-686.
    16. Unni, P., K. Kothari, and M. Pillai, Radiochemical processing of radionulides (105 Rh, 166 Ho, 153 Sm, 186 Re and 188 Re) for targeted radiotherapy. 2001.
    17. Ranjbar, H., M. Ghannadi-Maragheh, A. Bahrami-Samani, and D. Beiki, Dosimetric evaluation of 153Sm-EDTMP, 177Lu-EDTMP and 166Ho-EDTMP for systemic radiation therapy: Influence of type and energy of radiation and half-life of radionuclides. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2015; 108: p. 60-64.
    18. Dvoráková, Z., Production and chemical processing of Lu-177 for nuclear medicine at the Munich research reactor FRM-II. 2007, Technische Universität München.
    19. Spangler, S., J. Sisolak, and D. Henderson, Calculational models for the treatment of pulsed/intermittent activation within fusion energy devices. Fusion engineering and design, 1993; 22(4): p. 349-366.