Transfer of Radio-Adaptation via Serum: A Preliminary Report

Document Type : Original Paper


1 Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Department of Radiology, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

4 Associate Professor of Medical Physics, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran


Introduction: Adaptive response is one of the important concepts in radiobiology. The present report aimed to transfer the radio-adaptation via serum.
Material and Methods: In total, 50 male adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, including control, serum control, low-dose (100cGy), low-dose/lethal, serum/lethal, and lethal (8Gy). Exposure was carried out by a linear accelerator (Elekta Synergy® Platform) with a 40×40cm field size. The animals were monitored in terms of the endpoints of the survival rate, and at the first stage, the rats were exposed to the low doses of radiation. Subsequently, the serum was injected intraperitoneally under sterile conditions 6 h after low-dose exposure. The Kaplan Meier Survival Curve was used to evaluate the survival rate (p <0.05).
Results: There was a significant difference among different groups regarding the survival rates. Moreover, a statistically significant difference was observed between low-dose/lethal and low-dose/serum, low-dose/lethal and lethal, and low-dose/serum and lethal (P=0.001). Similarly, there was a statistically significant difference between the control and experimental groups regarding the survival rates (P=0.001).
Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this method can lead to immunological responses or unknown mechanisms that result in the increased survival adaptive response to subsequent high-dose radiation.


Main Subjects


    1. Shore R, Walsh L, Azizova T, Rühm W. Risk of solid cancer in low dose-rate radiation epidemiological studies and the dose-rate effectiveness factor. Int J Radiat Biol. 2017;93(10):1064-78.
    2. Sigurdson AJ, Ron E. Cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk among flight crew. Cancer Invest. 2004;22(5):743-61.
    3. Tokonami S, Hosoda M, Akiba S, Sorimachi A, Kashiwakura I, Balonov M. Thyroid doses for evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear accident. Sci Rep. 2012;2:507.
    4. Azmoonfar R, Najafi M, Khodamoradi E, Rasouli N. Adsorption of Radioactive Materials by Green Microalgae Dunaliella Salina from Aqueous Solution. Iranian Journal of Medical Physics. 2019;16(6):392-6.
    5. Cucinotta F, Manuel F, Jones J, Iszard G, Murrey J, Djojonegro B, et al. Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts. Radiat Res. 2001;156(5):460-6.
    6. Straube U, Berger T, Reitz G, Facius R, Fuglesang C, Reiter T, et al. Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations. Acta Astronautica. 2010 2010/04/01/;66(7):963-73.
    7. Durante M. Space radiation protection: Destination Mars. Life Sciences in Space Research. 2014 2014/04/01/;1:2-9.
    8. Azmoonfar R, Faghirnavaz H, Younesi H, Morovati E, Ghorbani Z, Tohidnia M. Physicians’ knowledge about radiation dose in radiological investigation in Iran. Journal of biomedical physics & engineering. 2016;6(4):285.
    9. Brenner DJ, Doll R, Goodhead DT, Hall EJ, Land CE, Little JB, et al. Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing radiation: assessing what we really know. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2003;100(24):13761-6.
    10. Mortazavi S, Erfani N, Mozdarani H, Azmoonfar R, Shokrpour N. Induction of apoptosis by 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from a GSM mobile phone simulator in bystander Jurkat cells. International Journal of Radiation Research. 2015;13(2):181.
    11. Ghiassi-Nejad M, Mortazavi S, Cameron J, Niroomand-Rad A, Karam P. Very high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran: preliminary biological studies. Health Phys. 2002;82(1):87-93.
    12. Mortazavi SJ, Cameron J, Niroomand-Rad A. Adaptive response studies may help choose astronauts for long-term space travel. Advances in Space Research. 2003;31(6):1543-51.
    13. Mortazavi S, MOSLEH SM, Tavassoli A, Taheri M, Bagheri Z, Ghalandari R, et al. A comparative study on the increased radioresistance to lethal doses of gamma rays after exposure to microwave radiation and oral intake of flaxseed oil. 2011.
    14. Wang G-J, Cai L. Induction of cell-proliferation hormesis and cell-survival adaptive response in mouse hematopoietic cells by whole-body low-dose radiation. Toxicol Sci. 2000;53(2):369-76.
    15. Demaria S, Ng B, Devitt ML, Babb JS, Kawashima N, Liebes L, et al. Ionizing radiation inhibition of distant untreated tumors (abscopal effect) is immune mediated. International Journal of Radiation Oncology• Biology• Physics. 2004;58(3):862-70.
    16. Dimova EG, Bryant PE, Chankova SG. Adaptive response: some underlying mechanisms and open questions. Genet Mol Biol. 2008;31(2):396-408.
    17. Mortazavi S, Motamedifar M, Namdari G, Taheri M, Mortazavi A, Shokrpour N. Non-linear adaptive phenomena which decrease the risk of infection after pre-exposure to radiofrequency radiation. Dose-Response. 2014;12(2):dose-response. 12-055. Mortazavi.
    18. Cao Y, Scarfi MR. Adaptive response in mammalian cells exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields: A review and gaps in knowledge. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research. 2014;760:36-45.
    19. Vares G. Radiation-induced adaptive response with reference to evidence and significance: A review. Indian J Radiat Res. 2006;3:16-34.
    20. Tapio S, Jacob V. Radioadaptive response revisited. Radiation and environmental biophysics. 2007;46(1):1-12.
    21. Matsumoto H, Hamada N, Takahashi A, Kobayashi Y, Ohnishi T. Vanguards of paradigm shift in radiation biology: radiation-induced adaptive and bystander responses. Journal of radiation research. 2007;48(2):97-106.
    22. Matsumoto H, Tomita M, Otsuka K, Hatashita M. A new paradigm in radioadaptive response developing from microbeam research. Journal of radiation research. 2009;50(Suppl. A):A67-A79.
    23. Olivieri G, Bodycote J, Wolff S. Adaptive response of human lymphocytes to low concentrations of radioactive thymidine. Science. 1984;223(4636):594-7.
    24. Mitchel RE. The dose window for radiation-induced protective adaptive responses. Dose-Response. 2010;8(2):dose-response. 09-039. Mitchel.
    25. Mortazavi S, Mostafavi-Pour Z, Daneshmand M, Zal F, Zare R, Mosleh-Shirazi M. Adaptive Response Induced by Pre-Exposure to 915 MHz Radiofrequency: A Possible Role for Antioxidant Enzyme Activity. Journal of biomedical physics & engineering. 2017;7(2):137.
    26. Sannino A, Zeni O, Romeo S, Massa R, Gialanella G, Grossi G, et al. Adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields: resistance to ionizing radiation-induced damage. J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2013;55(2):210-7.
    27. Zhao Y, Zhong R, Sun L, Jia J, Ma S, Liu X. Ionizing radiation-induced adaptive response in fibroblasts under both monolayer and 3-dimensional conditions. PloS one. 2015;10(3):e0121289.
    28. Olivieri G, Bosi A. Possible causes of variability of the adaptive response in human lymphocytes.  Chromosomal Aberrations: Springer; 1990. p. 130-9.
    29. Shadley JD, Afzal V, Wolff S. Characterization of the adaptive response to ionizing radiation induced by low doses of X rays to human lymphocytes. Radiat Res. 1987;111(3):511-7.
    30. Murley JS, Arbiser JL, Weichselbaum RR, Grdina DJ. ROS Modifiers and NOX4 Affect the Expression of the Survivin-Associated Radio-Adaptive Response. Free Radic Biol Med. 2018.
    31. Grdina DJ, Murley JS, Miller RC, Mauceri HJ, Sutton HG, Li JJ, et al. A survivin-associated adaptive response in radiation therapy. Cancer Res. 2013.
    32. Murley JS, Miller RC, Weichselbaum RR, Grdina DJ. TP53 Mutational Status and ROS Effect the Expression of the Survivin-Associated Radio-Adaptive Response. Radiat Res. 2017;188(5):579-90.
    33. Gandhi NM. Cellular adaptive response and regulation of HIF after low dose gamma-radiation exposure. International journal of radiation biology. 2018;94(9):809-14.
    34. Coleman MA, Yin E, Peterson LE, Nelson D, Sorensen K, Tucker JD, et al. Low-dose irradiation alters the transcript profiles of human lymphoblastoid cells including genes associated with cytogenetic radioadaptive response. Radiation research. 2005;164(4):369-82.
    35. Lanza V, Pretazzoli V, Olivieri G, Pascarella G, Panconesi A, Negri R. Transcriptional response of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to low doses of ionizing radiation. Journal of radiation research. 2005;46(2):265-76.
    36. Girigoswami KB, Ghosh R. Response to γ-irradiation in V79 cells conditioned by repeated treatment with low doses of hydrogen peroxide. Radiation and environmental biophysics. 2005;44(2):131-7.
    37. Sankaranarayanan K, Duyn A, Loos M, Natarajan A. Adaptive response of human lymphocytes to low-level radiation from radioisotopes or X-rays. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. 1989;211(1):7-12.
    38. Gandhi NM. Cellular Adaptive Response and Regulation of HIF after Low Dose Gamma-radiation Exposure. bioRxiv. 2018:316943.
    39. Sheikh MS, Fornace Jr AJ. Regulation of translation initiation following stress. Oncogene. 1999;18(45):6121.
    40. Jen K-Y, Cheung VG. Transcriptional response of lymphoblastoid cells to ionizing radiation. Genome Res. 2003;13(9):2092-100.
    41. Coates PJ, Lorimore SA, Wright EG. Damaging and protective cell signalling in the untargeted effects of ionizing radiation. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. 2004;568(1):5-20.
    42. Iyer R, Lehnert BE. Low dose, low-LET ionizing radiation-induced radioadaptation and associated early responses in unirradiated cells. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. 2002;503(1):1-9.
    43. Iyer R, Lehnert BE. Alpha-particle-induced increases in the radioresistance of normal human bystander cells. Radiat Res. 2002;157(1):3-7.
    44. Toossi MTB, Dehkordi SA, Sankian M, Azimian H, Amiri MN, Khademi S. Effects of adaptive response induced by low-dose ionizing radiation on immune system in spleen lymphocytes of BALB/C mice. Physica Medica. 2016;32:244.
    45. Mitchel R. Low doses of radiation are protective in vitro and in vivo: evolutionary origins. Dose-response. 2006;4(2):dose-response. 04-002. Mitchel.
    46. Ding L-H, Shingyoji M, Chen F, Hwang J-J, Burma S, Lee C, et al. Gene expression profiles of normal human fibroblasts after exposure to ionizing radiation: a comparative study of low and high doses. Radiat Res. 2005;164(1):17-26.
    47. Wolff S. The adaptive response in radiobiology: Evolving insights and implications. Environ Health Perspect. 1998;106(Suppl 1):277.
    48. Wolff S, Afzal V, Wiencke JK, Olivieri G, Michaeli A. Human lymphocytes exposed to low doses of ionizing radiations become refractory to high doses of radiation as well as to chemical mutagens that induce double-strand breaks in DNA. Int J Radiat Biol. 1988;53(1):39-48.
    49. Elmore E, Lao X, Kapadia R, Giedzinski E, Limoli C, Redpath J. Low doses of very low-dose-rate low-LET radiation suppress radiation-induced neoplastic transformation in vitro and induce an adaptive response. Radiat Res. 2008;169(3):311-8.
    50. Sannino A, Zeni O, Sarti M, Romeo S, Reddy SB, Belisario MA, et al. Induction of adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields: Influence of cell cycle. Int J Radiat Biol. 2011;87(9):993-9.
    51. Sannino A, Sarti M, Reddy SB, Prihoda TJ, Scarfì MR. Induction of adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to radiofrequency radiation. Radiat Res. 2009;171(6):735-42.
    52. UNSCEAR A. United nations scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation. United Nations New York; 2000.
    53. Babu TS, Akhtar TA, Lampi MA, Tripuranthakam S, Dixon DG, Greenberg BM. Similar stress responses are elicited by copper and ultraviolet radiation in the aquatic plant Lemna gibba: implication of reactive oxygen species as common signals. Plant and Cell Physiology. 2003;44(12):1320-9.


Volume 17, Issue 5
September and October 2020
Pages 316-321
  • Receive Date: 22 April 2019
  • Revise Date: 11 October 2019
  • Accept Date: 15 October 2019