Risk Assessment of Public Gamma Radiation in Some Provinces of Iran

Document Type : Original Paper


1 Birjand university of Medical sciences, Iran

2 paramedical faculty, Birjand University of Medical sciences


Introduction: Humans are continuously exposed to ionizing radiation. In order to evaluate health hazards, the measurements of background radiation in most countries have special importance.
Material and Methods: The measurements were carried out by an Ion Chamber Survey Meter (X5C plus), during daylight in 2016. The collected and reported data were based on two ways. Firstly, the measurements of gamma background radiation were performed directly in indoor and outdoor places of five areas, including north, south, west, center, and east, in 11 cities of South Khorasan province, Iran. Secondly, the related data of other studies were used for several provinces of Iran.
Results: According to the obtained results, the maximum and minimum of annual effective gamma dose were 0.72 and 0.34 nSvh-1 in Asadabad and Tabas, Iran, respectively. The maximum and minimum of annual effective gamma dose were 0.84 and 0.27 nSvh-1 in Hamedan, as well as Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Iran, respectively.
Conclusion: The average values of the annual effective dose and estimated excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were 0.60 nSv and 2.11×10-3, respectively, which were higher than the amounts of the world average. The calculated ELCRs for all Iran provinces were higher in comparison to the world average value of 0.25×10-3.


Main Subjects

  1. Sohrabi M, EsmailiA R. New public dose assessment of elevated natural radiation areas of Ramsar (Iran) for epidemiological studies. International Congress Series. 2002;1225:15-24.
  2. Tavakoli MB, Kodamoradi E, Shaneh Z. Assessment of gamma-dose rate in city of Kermanshah. Journal of Education and Health Promotion. 2012; 1:30. DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.100159.
  3. Mehdizadeh S, Faghihi R, Sina S. Natural radioactivity in building materials in Iran. NUKLEONIKA. 2011;56(4):363−8.
  4. Hazrati S, Sadeghi H, Amani M, Alizadeh B, Fakhimi H, Rahimzadeh S. Assessment of Gamma Dose Rate in Indoor Environments in Selected Districts of Ardabil Province, Northwestern Iran. International Journal of Occupational Hygiene. 2010; 2(1):42-5.
  5. Basirjafari S, Aghayari S, Poorabas S M, Moladoust H, Asadinezhad M. Assessment of Outdoor Gamma Radiation Dose Rates in 49 Cities of Guilan Province, IRAN,Iranian Journal of Medical Physics. 2014; 11( 1):168-74.
  6. Bahreyni Toossi MT , Bayani Sh, Yarahmadi M, Aghamir A, Jomehzadeh A, Hagh Parast M, et al. Gonad, bone marrow and effective dose to the population of more than 90 towns and cities of Iran, arising from environmental gamma radiation, Iranian Journal of Radiation Research. 2009; 7 (1): 41-7.
  7. Hazrati S, Baghi AN, Sadeghi H, Barak M, Zivari S, Rahimzadeh S. Investigation of natural effective gamma dose rates case study: Ardebil Province in Iran. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering. 2012; 9(1):1.
  8. Pashazadeh M A, Aghajani M, Nabipour I, Assadi M. Annual effective dose from environmental gamma radiation in Bushehr city, Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 2014; 12:4.
  9. Zarghani H, Jafari R. Assessment of Outdoor and Indoor Background Gamma Radiation, the Annual Effective Dose and Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk in Birjand, Iran. Jundishapur Journal of Health Sciences. 2017; 9(3): e40791. DOI: 10.5812/jjhs.40791.
  10. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation ANNEX B: Exposures from natural radiation sources, sub subsection IIC2; 2000.
  11. United Nations Scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation sources and effects of ionizing radiation: Sources. 1. United Nations Publications; 2000.
  12. Taskin H, Karavus M, Ay P, Topuzoglu A, Hidiroglu S, Karahan G. Radionuclide concentrations in soil and lifetime cancer risk due to gamma radioactivity in Kirklareli, Turkey. J Environ Radioact. 2009; 100(1):49–53.
  13. Rashed-Nizam QM, Rahman MM, Kamal M, Chowdhury MI. Assessment of radionuclides in the soil of residential areas of the Chittagong metropolitan city, Bangladesh and evaluation of associated radiological risk. J Radiat Res. 2015; 56(1):22–9.
  14. https://www.amar.org.ir/english/Population-and-Housing-Censuses/presidecy of I.R.I/ plan and budget organization/statistical center of Iran.
  15. International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP publication 60: 1990 recommendations of the international commission on radiological protection. 60. Elsevier Health Sciences. 1991.
  16. Amiri J, Shirmardi SP, Amiri S, Abbasi MH, Abdolmohamadi J. Measurement of Outdoor Background Dose Rate in Ilam Province. SJIMU. 2016; 23 (6):196-203.
  17. Gholami M, Mirzaei S, Jomehzadeh A. Gamma background radiation measurement in Lorestan province, Iran. Iranian Journal of Radiation Research. 2011; 9(2): 89-93.
  18. Saghatchi F, Eslami A, Salouti M. Assessment of gamma background radiation in outdoor and indoor areas in Zanjan province (Iran). IRPA12: 12. 2008.
  19. Chopani Kh, Eievazi M T, Dehlaghi V, Haghparast A. Environmental gamma rate in outdoor and indoor of Kermanshah province in different seasons, (2010-11). J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci. 2014;18(5): 275-80.
  20. Samadi M T, GolzarKhojasteh B, Rostampour N. Indoor Natural Radiation Level in Hamadan Province, 2012. J Mazand Univ Med Sci. 2013; 23(99): 54-60.
  21. Bahreyni Toosi MT, Yarahmadi M. Comparison of Indoor and Outdoor dose Rate from Environmental Gamma Radiation in Kurdistan Province. J Kerman University Med Sci. 2009;16(3):255-62.
  22. Bouzarjomehri F, Ehrampoush M H. Gamma background radiation in Yazd province A preliminary report. IJRR. 2005;3(1):17-20.
  23. Salimi J, Moosavi K, Vatankhah S. Annual Background radiation in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. IJRR. 2003; 1(2) :87-91.



Volume 18, Issue 1
January and February 2021
Pages 78-83
  • Receive Date: 30 November 2018
  • Revise Date: 11 December 2019
  • Accept Date: 13 December 2019