Suitability Assessment of an Indigenous Heterogeneous Thoracic Phantom for Patient-Specific Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy.

Document Type : Original Paper


1 M.J.P. Rohilkhand University Bareilly

2 Department of Physics Bareilly College Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh India

3 Government Cancer Hospital, MGM Medical College, Indore

4 Medical Physics Division & Radiation Oncology Department, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Center, New Delhi, India

5 Medical Physics Division & Radiation Oncology Department, Apollo medics Hospital Lucknow, India

6 Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences, Vibhuti Khand Gomti Nagar, Lucknow -226010


Objective: Patient-specific quality assurance (PSQA) assumes a vital role in precise and accurate radiation delivery to cancer patients. Since the patient body comprises heterogeneous media, the present study aimed to fabricate a heterogeneous thoracic phantom for PSQA.
Materials and Methods: Heterogeneous thoracic (HT) phantom was fabricated using rib cage made up of bone equivalent material, kail-wood to mimic lungs and wax to mimic the various body parts. The physical density of all these materials used in phantom fabrication was measured and compared with that of the corresponding part of the actual human thorax. One beam was planned on the computed tomography (CT) images of the phantom and actual patient thorax region. Dose distribution in both the plans was measured and analyzed.
Results: The estimated densities of heart, lung, ribs, scapula, spine, and chest wall tissues were 0.804 ± 0.007, 0.186 ± 0.010, 1.796 ± 0.061, 2.017 ± 0.026, 2.106 ± 0.029 and 0.739 ± 0.028 respectively in case of HT phantom while 1.038 ± 0.010, 0.199 ± 0.031, 1.715 ± 0.040, 2.006 ± 0.019, 1.929 ± 0.065 and 0.816 ± 0.028 g/cc, respectively in case of actual human thorax region.
The depths of isodose curves in HT phantom were also comparable to the isodose curve’s depths in real patient. The PSQA results were within ± 3% for flat beam (FB) and flattening filtered free beam (FFFB) of 6 megavolts (MV) energy.
Conclusion: The density and the dose distribution pattern in the HT phantom were similar to that in the actual human thorax region. Thus, fabricated HT phantom can be utilized for radiation dosimetry in thoracic cancer patients. The materials used to develop HT phantom are easily available in the market at an affordable price and easy to craft.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 29 June 2021
  • Receive Date: 28 September 2020
  • Revise Date: 15 May 2021
  • Accept Date: 29 June 2021