Angiography; an inducer of TGF-β during early atherosclerosis

Document Type : Original Paper


1 Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences

2 Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences


Introduction: Angiography is an X-ray based technique for diagnosis of the disorders of the arteries, veins and the heart chambers. X-ray is a potential factor for the modulation of immune responses, including cytokines, the key molecules participate in the cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Due to the potential roles of IL-6 and transforming growth factor- beta (TGF-β) in the cardiovascular disease, this study was designed to evaluate the IL-6 and TGF-β serum levels before and after angiography in the atherosclerosis suspected patients.

Material and methods: In this experimental study, the IL-6 and TGF-β serum levels were explored, using ELISA technique, in the healthy controls as well as three groups, including the atherosclerosis suspected patients without, with obstruction of 1 and more than 1 vessel. The IL-6 and TGF-β serum levels also were evaluated 3 hours after angiography in the last three groups.

Results: The results showed that TGF-β serum levels were significantly higher in the controls in comparison of other groups. Angiography and smoking increased TGF-β and IL-6 serum levels, respectively, in the atherosclerotic patients with obstruction of 1 vessel. Age had a positive, moderate correlation with IL-6 in the non-atherosclerotic patients.

Conclusion: Down-regulation of TGF-β may be associated with induction of inflammation in the patients. Angiography, via up-regulation of TGF-β, may reduce inflammation in the patients and smoking may increase the progression of atherosclerosis in the atherosclerotic patients. Age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases via up-regulation of IL-6.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 08 February 2022
  • Receive Date: 23 December 2020
  • Revise Date: 18 May 2021
  • Accept Date: 08 February 2022
  • First Publish Date: 08 February 2022