Radioprotection and Radiomitigating Potential of Markhamia Tomentosa Extract Against Gamma Radiation-Induced Damage on Albino Wistar Rats

Document Type : Original Paper


1 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2 Department of Physical Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Redeemer's University, Ede, Nigeria


Introduction: This study evaluated the efficacy of Markhamia tomentosa (MT) extract as a potential radiation countermeasure emphasising its radioprotective and radiomitigating properties.
Material and Methods: Forty male albino Wistar rats aged 10-12 weeks were used for the study. Rats were divided into eight groups comprising five animals in each group. The extract was administered for 14 days by oral gavage for both pretreatment and post-treatment. An hour after the last pre-administration, animals received 3 Gy and 6 Gy of gamma radiation by whole-body irradiation (WBI) using 60Co-γ as the radiation source. Rats were euthanised on day 15 for hematological and histological examinations except those in post-treatment groups. Data were analysed by one-way ANOVA and subjected to Tukey's HSD post hoc test.
Results: WBI of rats at 3 Gy and 6 Gy significantly reduced the hematological parameters. However, the oral administration of MT extract ameliorated the effect of ionising radiation by considerably improving the hematological parameters leading to high blood counts. Continuous administration of MT extract for additional 14 days showed a more remarkable improvement in the hematological parameters, as evident in the white blood cell, neutrophils and platelet counts. Pre and post-treatment of rats with MT extract decreased changes in the kidney tubules, and the liver showed moderate congestion of hepatic sinusoids in the portal tracts denoting an increased blood flow rate causing healing of the cells.
Conclusion: MT demonstrated its radioprotective and radiomitigating potential in recovering distorted tissues and modulating the effects of gamma radiation-induced damage to blood cells.


Main Subjects

  1. Mishra KN, Moftah BA, Alsbeih GA. Appraisal of mechanisms of radioprotection and therapeutic approaches of radiation countermeasures. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2018;06:610-7.
  2. Akomolafe IR, Chetty N. Radioprotective potential of Costus afer against the radiation-induced hematological and histopathological damage in mice. Radiat Oncol J. 2021;39(1):61-71.
  3. Akomolafe IR, Chetty N. Evaluation of radioprotective efficacy of Drymaria cordata extract on whole-body radiation-induced hematological damage in Mice. Iran J of Med Phys. 2022;19(3):136-44.
  4. Pineros M, Mery L, Soerjomataram I, Bray F, Steliarova-Foucher E. Scaling Up the Surveillance of Childhood Cancer: A Global Roadmap. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst. 2021;113(1):9-15.
  5. World Health Organisation, WHO, Cancer 2022 [Accessed 05/07/2022]. Available from:
  6. Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, Laversanne M, Soerjomataram I, Jema A, et al. Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2021;71:209-49.
  7. Kuruba V, Gollapalli P. Natural radioprotectors and their impact on cancer drug discovery. Radiat Oncol J. 2018;36:265-75.
  8. Nukala U, Thakkar S, Krager KJ, Breen PJ, Compadre CM, Aykin-Burns N. Antioxidant tocols as radiation countermeasures (Challenges to be addressed to use tocols as radiation countermeasures in humans). Antioxidants. 2018;7(2):33.
  9. Dowlath MJH, Karuppannan SK, Sinha P, Dowlath NS, Arunachalam KD, Ravindran B, et al. Effects of radiation and role of plants in radioprotection: A critical review. Science of the Total Environment. 2021;779:146431.
  10. Ansari L, Banaei A, Dastranj L, Majdaeen M, Vafapour H, Zamani H, et al. Evaluating the radioprotective effect of single-dose and daily oral consumption of green tea, grape seed, and coffee bean extracts against gamma irradiation. Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2021;174:109781.
  11. Sato A. Revealing the popularity of traditional medicine in light of multiple recourses and outcome measurements from a user's perspective in Ghana. Health Policy and Planning. 2012;27:625–
  12. Oyebode O, Kandala Ngianga-Bakwin, Chilton Peter J, Lilford Richard J. Use of traditional medicine in middle-income countries: a WHO-SAGE study. Health Policy Planning. 2016;31:984-91.
  13. Yamini K, Gopal V. Natural radioprotective agents against ionising radiation: an overview. Int J Pharmtech Res. 2010;2:1421-6.
  14. Jagetia GC, Ganapathi NG, Venkatesh P, Rao N, Baliga M. Evaluation of the radioprotective effect of Liv 52 in Mice. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. 2006;47:490-502.
  15. Gudrun UM, Panek D, Zeitler H, Vetter H, Wagner H. Drug development from natural products: exploiting synergistic effects. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48:208-19.
  16. Kunwar A, Adhikary B, Jayakumar S, Barik A, Chattopadhyay S, Raghukumar S, et al. Melanin, a promising radioprotector: Mechanisms of actions in a mice model. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2012;264:202-11.
  17. Nadi S, Banaei A, Mozdarani H, Monfared AS, Ataei GR, Abedi-Firouzjah R. Evaluating the radioprotective effect of arbutin on mice exposed to megavoltage X-rays based on hematological parameters and lymphocytes micronucleus assay. Int. J. Radiat. Res. 2020;18:275–
  18. Nadi S, Elahi M, Moradi S, Banaei A. Radioprotective effect of arbutin in megavoltage therapeutic X-irradiated mice using liver enzymes assessment. J. Biomed. Phys. Eng. 2019;9:533.
  19. Jothy SL, Saito T, Kanwar JR, Chen Y, Aziz A, Yin-Hui L, et al. Radioprotective activity of Polyalthia longifolia standardised extract against X-ray radiation injury in mice. Phys. Medica. 2016;32:150–
  20. Yi J, Cheng C, Li S, Wang D, Wang L, Wang Z. Preparation optimisation and protective effect on 60Co-γ radiation damage of Pinus koraiensis pinecone polyphenols microspheres. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2018;113:583–
  21. Rafati M, Ghasemi A, Saeedi M, Habibi E, Salehifar E, Mosazadeh M, et al. Nigella sativa L. for prevention of acute radiation dermatitis in breast cancer: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Complement. Ther. Med. 2019;47:102205.
  22. Kim HG, Jang SS, Lee JS, Kim HS, Son CG. Panax ginseng meyer prevents radiation-induced liver injury via modulation of oxidative stress and apoptosis. J. Ginseng Res. 2017;41:159-68.
  23. Burkill HM. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa, vol 1. Royal Botanic Gardens, kew. 1985;258-9.
  24. Sowemimo A, Samuel F, Fajeyinbo MS. Anti-inflammatory activity of Markhamia tomentosa (Benth) K.Shum Ex Engl. Ethanolic leaf extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013;149:191-4.
  25. Ugbabe GE, Ayodele AE, Ajoku GA, Kunle OF, Kolo I, Okogun JI. Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial analyses of the leaves of Nigerian Bignoniaceae Juss. Glob Res J. 2010;1:1-5.
  26. National Institutes of Health. Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals (No. 85-23). Bethesda, MD; 1985.
  27. Adebajo AC, Famuyiwa FG, John JD, Idem ES, Adeoye AO. Activities of some Nigerian medicinal plants against Aedes aegypti. Chinese Medicine. 2012;3:151-6.
  28. Dainiak N, Gent RN, Carr Z, Schneider R, Bader J, Buglova E, et al. First global consensus for evidence-based management of the hematopoietic syndrome resulting from exposure to ionising radiation. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2011;5:202-12.
  29. Yi L, Tian M, Piao C, Gao G, Wu L, Pan Y, et al. The protective effects of 1, 2-propanediol against radiation-induced hematopoietic injury in mice. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2019;114:108806.
  30. El-Desouky W, Hanafi A, Abbas MM. Radioprotective effect of green tea and grape seed extracts mixture on gamma irradiation-induced immune suppression in male albino rats. International journal of radiation biology. 2017;93(4):433-9.
  31. Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Baliga MS. Evaluation of the radioprotective effect of bael leaf (Aegle marmelos) extract in mice. International journal of radiation biology. 2004;80(4):281-90.
  32. Wayneforth BH. Injection Techniques: Experimental and Surgical Techniques in the Rat. Academic Press, London. 1980;3-61.
  33. Hall EJ, Giaccia AJ. Radiobiology for the Radiologist. Eighth edition, Philadelphia, PA, USA: Wolters Kluwer; 2019.
  34. Savita V, Manju L, Ajaswrata D, Sanghmitra S, Sandeep KS, Swaran JSF. Modulation of ionising radiation-induced oxidative imbalance by semi-fractionated extract of Piper betle: An in vitro and in vivo assessment. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2010;3(1):44-52.
  35. Adaramoye O, Ogungbenro OA, Fafunso M. Protective effects of extracts of Vernonia amydalina, Hibiscus sabdariffa and vitamin c against radiation-induced liver damage in rats. J. Radiat. Res. 2008;49:123-31.
  36. Daniak N. Hematologic consequences of exposure to ionising radiation. Experimental haematology. 2002;30(6):513-28.
  37. AL-Dulamey Q. Kh, Al-Jawwady YA, Najam LA. Effects of low dose gamma-ray on some hematological parameters in adult rats. Iran J Med Phys. 2020;17:137-41.
  38. Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacognosy Reviews. 2010;4(8):118-26.
  39. Kim HG, Jang SS, Lee JS, Kim HS, Son CG. Panax ginseng meyer prevents radiation-induced liver injury via modulation of oxidative stress and apoptosis. J. Ginseng Res. 2017;41:159-68.
  40. Kim J, Jung Y. Radiation-induced liver disease: current understanding and future perspectives. Experimental & Molecular Medicine. 2017;49: e359.
  41. Owoeye O, Onwuka SK, Farombi EO. Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract and alpha-tocopherol alleviated gamma radiation-induced hematological and biochemical changes in rats. Int J Biol Chem Sci. 2011;5(5):1978-92.
  42. Shaheen AA, Hassan SM. Radioprotection of whole-body gamma irradiation-induced alteration in some hematological parameters by cysteine, vitamin E and their combination in rats. Strahlenther Onkol. 1991;167(8): 498-501.
  43. Rana K, Malhotra N, Malhotra RK. Effect of radiation on some hematological parameters and its modification by vitamin E in chicks. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1992;30(1):60- 1.
  44. Waghmare G, Waghmare S, Chavan R, Mane D. Leucocytes response in mice to low-level gamma irradiation and their protection by liv.52. J Biosci Tech. 2011;6:405- 9.
  45. Diagnosis and Treatment of Radiation Injuries, Safety Reports Series. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. 1998;2:13.
  46. Abdel-Aziz N, Badawy A, El-Gamal A, El-Belely E, Hammad A, Zakria A. The possible impact of Spirulina and Chlorella on some hematological and biochemical aspects in Irradiated Rats. Arab J. Nucl. Sci. Appl. 2022;55(3):130-7.
  47. Dong XZ, Wang YN, Tan X, Liu P, Guo DH, Yan C. Protective effect of JXT ethanol extract on radiation-induced hematopoietic alteration and oxidative stress in the liver. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2018:1-12.
  48. Ibrahim MB, Sowemimo AA, Sofidiya MO, Badmos KB, Fageyinbo MS, Abdulkareem FB, et al. Sub-acute and chronic toxicity profiles of Markhamia tomentosa ethanolic leaf extract in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016;193:68–
  49. Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi M. Radiation-induced kidney injury. J Renal Inj Prev. 2012;1(2):49-50.
  50. Kala J. Radiation-induced kidney injury. Journal of Onco-Nephrology. 2019;3(3):160-7.
  51. Temdie RJG, Fotio AL, Metchi FD, Ymele ECV, Tabi GTN, Dimo T. Protective Activity of Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae) Methanol leaves extract against D-galactosamine/Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice. Journal of Bioscience and Medicines. 2020;8:74-89.
  52. Ibrahim MB, Sowemimo AA, Venables L, Koorbanally NA, Awolola GV, Sofidiya MO, et al. Biological evaluation of phytoconstituents from Markhamia tomentosa ethanolic leaf extract. South African Journal of Botany. 2018;115:31-6.
  53. Sofidiya MO, Agunbiade FO, Koorbanally NA, Sowemimo A, Soesan D, Familusi T. Antiulcer activity of the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves of Markhamia tomentosa in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2014;157:1-6.
  54. Aladesanmi AJ, Iwalewa EO, Adebajo AC, Akinkunmi EO, Taiwo BJ, Olorunmola FO, et al. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr. J. Trad. CAM. 2007;4(2):173-84.