Secondary Particles Produced by Hadron Therapy

Document Type : Original Paper


1 Physics and Accelerators Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran

2 Institute of Nuclear Safety Research and Institute of Radiation Physics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany


Use of hadron therapy as an advanced radiotherapy technique is increasing. In this method, secondary particles are produced through primary beam interactions with the beam-transport system and the patient’s body. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations were employed to determine the dose of produced secondary particles, particularly neutrons during treatment.
Materials and Methods
In this study, secondary particles, produced by proton and ion beams, were simulated for a cancer treatment plan. In particular, we evaluated the distribution of secondary neutrons, produced by a 400 MeV/u carbon beam on an electronic crate, which was exposed to radiation field under radioactive conditions. The level of major secondary particles, particularly neutrons, irradiating the target, was evaluated, using FLUKA Monte Carlo code.
The fluences and radiation doses were applied to determine the shielding efficiency of devices and the probability of radiation damage to nearby electronic systems. According to the results, by using maximum-energy carbon ions (400 MeV/u), electronic devices are exposed to a dose rate of 0.05 µSv/s and an integrated dose of about 34 mSv, each year.
The simulation results could provide significant information about radiation assessment; they could also be a major help for clinical facilities to meet shielding requirements. Moreover, such simulations are essential for determining the radiation level, which is responsible for radiation-induced damages.


Main Subjects