Assessment of Patients’ Entrance Skin Dose from Diagnostic X-ray Examinations at Public Hospitals of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Document Type : Original Paper


1 Dept. of Physic, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2 Hospitals on Captions Should Be Corrected To Initial Capitals, Nigeria


High doses of ionizing radiation can lead to adverse health outcomes such as cancer induction in humans. Although the consequences are less evident at very low radiation doses, the associated risks are of societal importance. This study aimed at assessing entrance skin doses (ESDs) in patients undergoing selected diagnostic X-ray examinations at public hospitals of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods
In total, six examinations were performed on 720 patients in this study.   CALDose_X5 software program was used in estimating ESDs based on patients’ information and technical exposure parameters.
The estimated ESDs ranged from 0.59 to 0.61 mGy for PA and RLAT projections of the thorax, respectively. ESDs for the AP and RLAT projections of the cranium were 1.65 and 1.48 mGy, respectively. Also, ESD values for the AP view of the abdomen and pelvis were 1.89 and 1.88 mGy, respectively. The mean effective dose was within the range of 0.021-0.075 mGy for the thorax (mean= 0.037), 0.008-0.045 mGy for the cranium (mean= 0.016), 0.215-0.225 mGy for the abdomen (mean= 0.219) and 0.101-0.119 mGy for the pelvis (mean= 0.112).
The obtained results were comparable to the international reference dose levels, except for the PA projection of the thorax. Therefore, quality assurance programs are required in diagnostic X-ray units of Nigeria hospitals. The obtained findings add to the available data and can help authorities establish reference dose levels for diagnostic radiography in Nigeria. 


Main Subjects