Document Type : Conference Proceedings
Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.
Research Center of Oils and Fats (RCOF), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.
Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.
Many study shown the effectiveness dose enhancement with gold nanoparticles (GNPs), especially with low-energy x-rays. Recently, proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) has attention as a treatment for tumors. The advantage in PBRT, which releases high dose at the controllable Bragg peak position that localized for Au target and the released dose increased in depth. In this paper we consider potential of GNPs with PBRT in compared conventional radiotherapy.
Materials and Methods:
This paper prepared by searching the latest relate paper with keywords such as gold nanoparticles and proton therapy in PubMed and Scopus databases.
Several research considerate GNPs dose enhancement in in vitro and in vivo for PBRT and showed increasing tumor cell kill. Many study reported that GNPs internalization into tumor cells, the effect of dose enhancement increases. Some study compared the dose deposited by secondary electrons generated from GNPs interacting with clinical spread out Bragg peak proton, kV and MV photon beams that secondary electrons produced by kV photons have a longest range up to 20 times and dose enhancement using protons can be up to 14 times that is independent of proton energy, while the dose enhancement is highly dependent on the photon energy used. Some studies report that the mechanism which GNPs can lead to dose enhancements in radiation therapy differs when comparing photon and proton radiation.
Although radio-sensitization enhancement factor is highest for KV photon due to the highest probability of interaction with GNPs, but proton therapy with GNPs showed many potentials. Since protons are loading less cumulative dose compared to photons, especially when combined with the GNPs, it can be considered as the preferred method for treating tumors in children. The results will enable us to project the radio-sensitizing effect in clinical applications of proton therapy with GNPs. Direct distribution of proton’s energy is the major advantage of proton treatment over conventional radiation.