Assessment of patient entrance skin dose (ESD) and effective dose (ED) for the most common interventional radiological exams at Mazandaran hospital

Document Type : Conference Proceedings




Nowadays we are witnessing an exponential application of interventional radiology
techniques in various communities as well as Iran. Radiological technique is regarded
as  the  2nd  contributing  factor in  increasing  the  amount  of  public  doses  in various
societies. So that related radiation protection organization has recommended
measuring patient doses resulted from such techniques. The aims of this study have been the measurement of skin entrance dose, effective dose and also calculating the
parameters required to estimate the effective dose of interventional radiology systems
to reduce patient doses during common diagnostic and therapeutic interventional
examinations at Mazandaran hospital.
Materials and methods:
After reviewing and analyzing interventional radiology examination data at an imaging
center of a Mazandaran hospital over a 12 month period, the five most commonly
interventional      radiology      examinations,      including      cholangiography,      liver
chemoembolization, uterine fibroids embolization, bile duct stinting and brain
embolization was selected for dosimetry calculations. For each examination, 10
patients were selected and their skin dose was measured using thermoluminescent
dosimeters (TLDs). The effective doses resulting from these examinations were
calculated using computational software (PCXMC) based on Monte Carlo calculations in
an average human phantom.
The average entrance skin dose measured for the patients cholangiography, liver
chemoembolization, uterine fibroids embolization, bile duct stinting and brain
embolization was 52, 139, 413, 263 and 594 mGy respectively. Effective dose resulted
from the above examinations were 2.9,13, 36, 17.2 and 12 mSv respectively.
As expected, the patient dose in interventional radiology exams varied a lot because it
depends on many factors including the type of medical imaging systems, complexity
interventional examination, experience and skill of the operator, and patient weight.


  • Receive Date: 21 May 2018
  • Revise Date: 14 May 2019
  • Accept Date: 06 July 2018
  • First Publish Date: 01 December 2018