Indoor Radon Measurement in Dwellings of Khorramabad City, Iran

Document Type : Original Paper


1 Student Research Committee, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran

2 Center for Air Pollution Research(CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research(IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 3. Nutrition Health Research Center, Department of public Health, School of Health and Nutrition, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran

4 Nutrition Health Research Center, Department of Environment Health, School of Health and Nutrition, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran


Introduction: Exposure to indoor radon increases the risk of lung cancer. This study examined the level of indoor radon in dwellings of Khorramabad city, by using passive alpha-track detector (CR-39) during winter of 2016.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, we detected the concentration of indoor radon in 56 dwellings. A passive sampling instrument (alpha-track detector with CR-39 polycarbonate films) was utilized to measure indoor radon gas concentration. The distribution map of indoor radon concentration was prepared using Arc GIS software.
 Results: Radon concentration in the dwellings varied from 1.08 to 196.78 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 43.43±40.37 Bq/m3. The average annual effective dose received by the residents of the studied area was estimated to be 1.09 mSv. Our results showed a significant difference between the average radon concentrations in houses and apartments, with a higher level in houses.
Conclusion: Indoor radon concentration in 10.1% of the dwellings was determined to be higher than the limit (100 Bq/m3) recommended by the World Health Organization.


Main Subjects

  1. References


    1. McColl N, Auvinen A, Kesminiene A, Espina C, Erdmann F, de Vries E, et al. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer. Cancer epidemiology. 2015 Dec 31; 39: 93-100.
    2. Inácio M, Soares S, Almeida P. Radon concentration assessment in water sources of public drinking of Covilhã's county, Portugal. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences. 2017 Apr 30; 10(2):135-9.
    3. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. Volume I: Sources. 2000.
    4. Denton GR, Namazi S. Indoor radon levels and lung cancer incidence on Guam. Procedia Environmental Sciences. 2013 Jan 1; 18:157-66.
    5. Henriksen T, Maillie HD, Korchin SR. Radiation and health. Medical Physics. 2003 Oct 1; 30(10):2857.
    6. Yousef HA, Saleh GM, El-Farrash AH, Hamza A. Radon exhalation rate for phosphate rocks samples using alpha track detectors. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences. 2016 Jan 31; 9(1):41-6.
    7. Óskarsson F, Ásgeirsdóttir RS. Radon in Icelandic Cold Groundwater and Low-Temperature Geothermal Water. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science. 2017 Dec 31; 17:229-32.
    8. Śmiełowska M, Marć M, Zabiegała B. Indoor air quality in public utility environments—a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2017 Feb 24:1-1.
    9. Appleton D. Radon In Air and Water, Essentials of Medical Geology. Editor: Olle Selinus. 2005:227-63.
    10. Jeon HJ, Kang DR, Go SB, Park TH, Park SH, Kwak JE, et al. A preliminary study for conducting a rational assessment of radon exposure levels. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2017 Jun 1; 24(16):14491-8.
    11. US.EPA. protocol for conducting radon and radon decay product measurements in multifamily buildings. 1-44.
    12. Vasini H, Alvandi A. the relationship between granite stones and lung cancer in iranian homes kitchen. International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology(IJRASET). 2014; 2(ix): 173-7.
    13. World Health Organization. WHO handbook on indoor radon: a public health perspective; 2009.
    14. Appleton JD, Miles JC. A statistical evaluation of the geogenic controls on indoor radon concentrations and radon risk. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 2010 Oct 31; 101(10):799-803.
    15. Singh S, Mehra R, Singh K. Seasonal variation of indoor radon in dwellings of Malwa region, Punjab. Atmospheric Environment. 2005 Dec 31; 39(40):7761-7.
    16. Ruano-Ravina A, Dacosta-Urbieta A, Barros-Dios JM, Kelsey KT. Radon exposure and tumors of the central nervous system. Gaceta Sanitaria. 2017 Mar 18.
    17. Istrate MA, Catalina T, Cucos A, Dicu T. Experimental measurements of VOC and Radon in two Romanian classrooms. Energy Procedia. 2016 Jan 1; 85:288-94.
    18. Hahn EJ, Gokun Y, Andrews WM, Overfield BL, Robertson H, Wiggins A, Rayens MK. Radon potential, geologic formations, and lung cancer risk. Preventive medicine reports. 2015 Dec 31; 2:342-6.
    19. Kim Y, Chang BU, Park HM, Kim CK, Tokonami S. National radon survey in Korea. Radiation protection dosimetry. 2011 Apr 11; 146(1-3):6-10.
    20. Kropat G, Bochud F, Jaboyedoff M, Laedermann JP, Murith C, Palacios M, Baechler S. Major influencing factors of indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 2014 Mar 31; 129:7-22.
    21. Al-Khateeb HM, Al-Qudah AA, Alzoubi FY, Alqadi MK, Aljarrah KM. Radon concentration and radon effective dose rate in dwellings of some villages in the district of Ajloun, Jordan. Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2012 Aug 31; 70(8):1579-82.
    22. Brogna A, La Delfa S, La Monaca V, Nigro SL, Morelli D, Tringali G. Measurements of indoor radon concentration on the south-eastern flank of Mount Etna volcano (Southern Italy). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2007 Aug 15; 165(1):71-5.
    23. Ngachin M, Garavaglia M, Giovani C, Njock MK, Nourreddine A. Assessment of natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in some Cameroonian building materials. Radiation Measurements. 2007 Jan 31; 42(1):61-7.
    24. Bouzarjomehri F, Ehrampoush M. Radon level in dwellings basement of Yazd-Iran. Iranian Journal of Radiation Research. 2008; 6(3): 141-4.
    25. Hadad K, Mokhtari J. Indoor radon variations in central Iran and its geostatistical map. Atmospheric Environment. 2015 Feb 28; 102:220-7.
    26. Hadad K, Doulatdar R, Mehdizadeh S. Indoor radon monitoring in Northern Iran using passive and active measurements. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 2007 Jun 30; 95(1):39-52.
    27. Gillmore GK, Jabarivasal N. A reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in Hamadan city, Iran. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. 2010 Apr 19; 10(4):857-63.
    28. Mowlavi AA, Fornasier MR, Binesh A, De Denaro M. Indoor radon measurement and effective dose assessment of 150 apartments in Mashhad, Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2012 Feb 1; 184(2):1085-8.
    29. Hadad K, Hakimdavoud MR, Hashemi-Tilehnoee M. Indoor radon survey in Shiraz-Iran using developed passive measurement method. Iranian Journal of Radiation Research. 2011 Dec 15; 9(3):175-82.
    30. Rahimi SA, Nikpour B. Measurement of radon concentration of air samples and estimating radiation dose from radon in Sari province. Universal Journal of Public Health. 2013 Aug; 1(2):26-31.
    31. Haddadi G. Assessment of Radon level in dwellings of Tabriz. Journal of Fasa University of Medical Sciences. 2011 Jun 15; 1(1):13-9.
    32. Fahiminia M, Fard RF, Ardani R, Naddafi K, Hassanvand MS, Mohammadbeigi A. Indoor radon measurements in residential dwellings in Qom, Iran. International Journal of Radiation Research. 2016 Oct 1; 14(4):331-9.
    33. Miles JC, Appleton JD. Mapping variation in radon potential both between and within geological units. Journal of Radiological Protection. 2005 Sep 6; 25(3):257.
    34. Dubois G. An overview of radon surveys in Europe. 2005. EC, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 2005:168Report.
    35. Statistical Center of Iran. Available from:
    36. Radon I. Radon Decay Product Measurement Device Protocols. Document EPA. 1992; 402.
    37. Sohrabi M, Solaymanian AR. Indoor radon level measurements in some regions of Iran. International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation. Part D. Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements. 1988 Jan 1; 15(1-4):613-6.
    38. CFR U. Code of Federal Regulations Title 40: Protection of Environment, Part 136–Guidelines establishing test procedures for the analyses of pollutants, Appendix B to Part 136–definition and procedure for the determination of Method Detection Limit rev. 1.11.
    39. ICRP Publication 69. Age-dependent Doses to Members of the Public from Intake of Radionuclides: Part 3 Ingestion Dose Coefficients. 1995: Elsevier Health Sciences.
    40. Kaiser S. Radiological protection principles concerning the natural radioactivity of building materials. Radiation Protection. 1999; 112.